Electrophysiological and functional connectivity of the human supplementary motor area.
Neuro-imaging methods for detecting functional and structural inter-regional connectivity are in a rapid phase of development. While reports of regional connectivity patterns based on individual methods are becoming common, studies comparing the results of two or more connectivity-mapping methods remain rare. In this study, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation during PET imaging (TMS/PET), a stimulation-based method, and meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), a task-based method to map the connectivity patterns of the supplementary motor area (SMA). Further, we drew upon the behavioral domain meta-data of the BrainMap(R) database to characterize the behavioral domain specificity of two maps. Both MACM and TMS/PET detected multi-synaptic connectivity patterns, with the MACM-detected connections being more extensive. Both MACM and TMS/PET detected connections belonging to multiple behavioral domains, including action, cognition and perception. Finally, we show that the two connectivity-mapping methods are complementary in that, the MACM informed on the functional nature of SMA connections, while TMS/PET identified brain areas electrophysiologically connected with the SMA. Thus, we demonstrate that integrating multimodal database and imaging techniques can derive comprehensive connectivity maps of brain areas.